As a renewable energy source, solar energy has gained popularity as an alternative energy source. It is the energy that the sun provides as a natural resource. Solar-powered projects or objects turn the sun’s light energy into electricity that powers the object. Photovoltaic cells, which come in a variety of sizes and ratings depending on the application, are utilized for the conversion process.
Based on how solar energy is used, there are two different forms of solar energy.
- Active Solar Power
- Passive Solar Energy
Passive Solar Power
Without the assistance of any intermediary equipment or converters, passive solar energy is used straight from the Sun for a variety of purposes. By passively utilizing solar energy, we are able to heat water, swimming pool water, and even homes or other structures. The finest demonstration of passive solar energy is clothing drying in broad sunshine.
The following are some examples of passive solar energy applications:
- both solar cooling and heating
- drying rags, food items, and other supplies
- energetic solar activity
Active Solar Power
Buildings can operate with less fossil fuel energy thanks to active solar energy. There are two main uses for a solar energy source that is active. With this energy system, a circuit in the middle transforms solar energy from the sun into electricity (Photo voltaic cells).
Solar panels are installed on the top of a building or home to capture solar energy and transport it to the point of consumption. A solar heating system may meet a sizable portion of the household’s energy needs for heating.
Following are some uses for active solar energy:
- Active solar space heating
- Active solar water heating
- Active solar pool heating
Converting Solar Energy to Electricity.
PV solar panel
Solar cells constructed of semiconductor materials are used to create solar panels. Solar panels transform solar energy into DC power, typically 12V, which is used for the remainder of the circuit. The load rating determines how many cells are needed and how big they should be. If the solar panel is positioned precisely at a correct angle to the sun’s beams, an array of solar cells may generate the most power.
Any solar power system’s brain is a charge controller. The charge controller is employed to keep the batteries’ charging voltages at the appropriate levels. The charge controller controls the battery’s charging as well as the solar panel’s voltage and current. Additionally, it guards against both overcharging and undercharging of the battery.
The battery stores the current generated by the solar panels, which are then used to power the associated loads. The amount of load required determines the battery rating and quantity needed.
To power the loads, an inverter changes the DC voltage from the available batteries to the primary AC voltage. As a result, the inverter facilitates the operation of electrical equipment such as laptops and home appliances. High switching frequency, low harmonic content, high conversion efficiency, and other features are all properties of inverters.
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