What Is A Solar Power System?


Solar panels are equipped with photovoltaic (PV) materials that convert sunlight into electricity.

These PV cells react to photons from the sunlight as they absorb them and release electrons, creating an electric charge.

The generated electricity becomes a renewable source that can be used for various applications such as charging batteries, cooking, powering homes, and heating water through solar technology.

While solar panels play a significant role in the energy conversion process, they are just one component of a comprehensive solar power system.

This post will explore the different components that, when combined, complete the solar power system.

After reading, you will learn how each component contributes to the efficiency of solar panels.

What Major Components Make Up A Solar Power System?

Solar Panels

Solar panels are what most people think of when they hear about solar energy. They are the rectangular panels that you often see on rooftops. These rectangular panels comprise smaller parts known as solar cells. The solar cells collect sunlight and convert it into electricity.

When sunlight hits a solar cell, it triggers a movement in some of the electrons within the cell, causing them to create electricity.

Solar-rated Wires

Solar panel installations require wires suitable for outdoor conditions and can handle the system’s amperage.

Modern setups often use single-conductor Photovoltaic (PV) wire, typically in 10 to 12-gauge AWG sizes.

For off-grid systems, wires connect the solar panels to the charge controller, inverter, and battery.

PV1-F solar cable, commonly available in 4mm2 and 6mm2 sizes, is a practical choice for solar panels.

A general guideline is to use 4mm2 cables for arrays under 20A and 6mm2 for arrays of 20A or more.

Consider running two sets from the array to the controller if larger cables are needed.

While using larger cables is beneficial, balancing practicality and cost is crucial.

The key is to use solar-rated cables of the proper gauge to reduce power loss and ensure safe, efficient wiring.


The mounting or racking system is vital in a solar energy system as it securely attaches the panels to your roof.

However, there is no need to be overly concerned with the selection of racking/mounting.

What matters is that the people installing your solar system are qualified experts working for a reputable business that provides high-quality installations.

However, be wary of companies prioritizing quantity over quality, as they may rush through installations, compromising your home’s safety.

Such installers may offer lower prices but cut corners, resulting in roof damage or electrical hazards.

System Disconnects

A solar power system disconnect is a critical safety component in any solar power setup.

While fundamentally an electrical switch, its primary function is to allow for the safe disconnection of the DC power output from your solar panels and the entire solar array.

This capability is essential in various scenarios, such as when repairs or maintenance are needed on the system or if an identified problem with the solar setup requires immediate attention.

It’s built to withstand the high power output from solar panels on sunny days, ensuring it can handle significant electricity levels.

Solar Inverter

Thanks to solar panels, you can generate all your electricity; the only catch is that the electricity produced isn’t immediately usable.

The reason?

Solar panels convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity.

While certain devices run on DC, most household appliances and electronics require alternating current (AC)— the type of electricity utility companies supply.

Thus, you need an inverter to turn DC electricity into AC electricity.

Once converted, this power can either be used to run your household appliances and electronics or be fed back into the grid.

Battery and Charge Controller

If you opt for off-grid solar systems, you must add battery backup to store energy generated during daylight hours.

You can then use the stored energy at night or on cloudy days when solar power generation is impossible.

Of course, proper management of the flow of electricity to these batteries is crucial to prevent overcharging and to ensure that they don’t discharge back into the system at night.

This is where battery charge controllers come into play.

These controllers play a vital role in maintaining the health and efficiency of the batteries by regulating their charge.

Like automotive battery chargers, battery charge controllers are inexpensive, ensuring the stored energy is available when needed.

Sometimes, you might also need to integrate deep-cycle batteries into your system to have consistent current over extended periods, especially for the rigorous charging and discharging cycles.

Solar Power Meter

A solar power meter is a beneficial tool for your solar panel system, showing the amount of solar energy your home receives. While optional, this device has a lot of uses.

For instance, it keeps track of your solar system’s energy and how much energy you use at home. It also records energy coming from the grid and measures sunlight intensity.

Using a solar power meter can enhance your system’s efficiency, ensuring your solar devices are optimally placed and at the best performance.


Understanding the various components of a solar power system is crucial to fully comprehending its value and functionality.

As you have seen, each component plays a vital role, from the photovoltaic materials used in solar panels that capture sunlight to the intricate wiring and sturdy racking systems that ensure safety and durability.

This comprehensive guide has provided a detailed overview of the significant components of a solar power system and how each part contributes to its seamless operation.

We hope you find this post informative and helpful.

If you want to learn more about solar power systems, we recommend visiting Panel Upgrade Expert Ltd.

Their team of professionals is ready to assist you with any questions or concerns.


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